IB extended essay help: what to know about formatting
For a lot of people out there, writing any kind of academic piece can be a hassle. Even for those who are passionate about a subject and for those who actually know a lot about it, academic writing can be quite distressing. If you take into consideration the fact that the International Baccalaureate extended essay can be very important for your future (and that it is also a piece of academic writing), the pressure on your shoulders can feel even heavier.
It is very important that you keep your mind clear throughout the entire research and writing process because you will absolutely need to think clearly. Do bear in mind the fact that the official guidelines are there to actually help you and that even though they may seem confusing at a first glance, they will actually provide you with a lot of information on what is expected of you and your extended essay. If you are worried about formatting your essay and you are not sure of some things, then do read on.
- There are 7 parts that should never miss from an International Baccalaureate extended essay: the title page, the abstract, the table of contents, the introduction, the body, the conclusion and the bibliography page.
- The size and fonts of your essay will be dictated by the academic writing style of your choice. Choose one academic writing style (MLA, APA, Harvard, and so on) and stick with it throughout the entire essay. Use it both when it comes to formatting and when it comes to citations.
- Your abstract should be comprised out of 3 paragraphs, each of them of around 100 words. The first paragraph should contain the research question and the thesis, as well as the outline of the importance of the essay. The second paragraph should contain the key resources, the limits of your research, the scope of the investigation and so on. The third paragraph should contain the conclusion you have reached in your extended essay.
- Do make sure that you include the research question in the table of contents, in the abstract and in the introduction as well.
- Also, the thesis should be included in all of the places where the research question is included, with the exception that the conclusion of the IB extended essay will also have to include the thesis.
- The table of contents should contain the following parts: the research question, the thesis, the introduction (and page number), the arguments (and the page numbers), the sub-headings (and the page numbers), the conclusion (and the page number), the appendix (and the page number) and the bibliography page (and the page number).
The extended essay should be written in a clear, correct and formal academic style, appropriate to the subject from which the topic is drawn. Given that the extended essay is a formally written research paper, it should strive to maintain a professional, academic look.
To help achieve this, the following formatting is required:
- 12-point, readable font (Calibri or Times New Roman);
- double spacing throughout entire Essay;
- page numbering - top right corner;
- no candidate or school name or supervisor name on the title page or page headers.
Submitting the extended essay in the required format will help set the tone of the essay and will aid readability for on-screen assessment by examiners.
The structure of the essay is very important. It helps students to organize the argument, making the best use of the evidence collected.
There are six required elements of the final work to be submitted. More details about each element are given in the “Presentation” section. Please note that the order in which these elements are presented here is not necessarily the order in which they should be written.
Six required elements of the extended essay:
- Title page
- Contents page
- Body of the essay
- References and bibliography -- if MLA "Works Cited" if CSE "References"
1. Required Title Page
The title page should include only the following information:
- the title of the essay
- the research question
- the subject the essay is registered in (if it is a language essay also state which category it falls into; if a world studies essay also state the theme and the two subjects utilized)
- word count
The upper limit is 4,000 words for all extended essays.
Please note: Examiners are instructed not to read or assess any material in excess of the word limit. This means that essays containing more than 4,000 words will be compromised across all assessment criteria. Given the holistic nature of the assessment criteria, students who write in excess of the word limit will self-penalize across all criteria.
2. Required Contents Page
A contents page must be provided at the beginning of the extended essay and all pages should be numbered. Please note that an index page is not required and if included will be treated as if it is not present.
3. Required Introduction
The introduction should tell the reader what to expect in the essay. The introduction should make clear to the reader the focus of the essay, the scope of the research, in particular an indication of the sources to be used, and an insight into the line of argument to be taken.
While students should have a sense of the direction and key focus of their essay, it is sometimes advisable to finalize the introduction once the body of the essay is complete.
4. Required Body of the Essay (research, analysis, discussion, and evaluation)
The main task is writing the body of the essay, which should be presented in the form of a reasoned argument. The form of this varies with the subject of the essay but as the argument develops it should be clear to the reader what relevant evidence has been discovered, where/how it has been discovered and how it supports the argument. In some subjects, for example, the sciences, sub-headings within the main body of the essay will help the reader to understand the argument (and will also help the student to keep on track). In structuring their extended essay, students must take into consideration the expected conventions of the subject in which their extended essay is registered.
Once the main body of the essay is complete, it is possible to finalize the introduction (which tells the reader what to expect) and the conclusion (which says what has been achieved, including notes of any limitations and any questions that have not been resolved).
Any information that is important to the argument must not be included in appendices or footnotes/endnotes. The examiner will not read notes or appendices, so an essay that is not complete in itself will be compromised across the assessment criteria.
5. Required Conclusion
The conclusion says what has been achieved, including notes of any limitations and any questions that have not been resolved. While students might draw conclusions throughout the essay based on their findings, it is important that there is a final, summative conclusion at the end. This conclusion(s) must relate to the research question posed.
6. Required References & Bibliography
Students should use their chosen style of academic referencing as soon as they start writing. That way they are less likely to forget to include a citation. It is also easier than trying to add references at a later stage. For more information on this, refer to the guidelines in the IB document Effective citing and referencing.
Writing the essay takes time but if students have used their Researcher's reflection space and reflection sessions in a meaningful way they should be well prepared to develop their arguments.