This article is about the women's organization. For the Grant Wood painting, see Daughters of Revolution.
|National Society Daughters of the American Revolution|
DAR Constitution Hall, Washington, DC
|Abbreviation||DAR / NSDAR|
|Motto||God, Home, and Country|
|Founded||October 11, 1890; 127 years ago (1890-10-11)|
Incorporated 1896 by an Act of Congress
|Focus||Historic preservation, education, patriotism|
|Headquarters||Washington, D.C., United States|
The Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) is a lineage-based membership service organization for women who are directly descended from a person involved in the United States' efforts towards independence. A non-profit group, they work to promote historic preservation, education, and patriotism. The organization's membership is limited to direct lineal descendants of soldiers or others of the Revolutionary period who aided the cause of independence; applicants must have reached 18 years of age and are reviewed at the chapter level for admission. It currently has approximately 185,000 members in the United States and in several other countries. Its motto is "God, Home, and Country."
Since the late 20th century, following the civil rights movement and changes in historic scholarship, the organization has expanded its membership, recognizing minority contributions and expanding the definition of those whose work is considered to have aided the Revolution, and recognizing more ways in which women and other people served.
In 1889 the centennial of President George Washington's inauguration was celebrated, and Americans looked for additional ways to recognize their past. Out of the renewed interest in United States history, numerous patriotic and preservation societies were founded. On July 13, 1890, after the Sons of the American Revolution refused to allow women to join their group, Mary Smith Lockwood published the story of patriot Hannah White Arnett in the Washington Post, asking, "Where will the Sons and Daughters of the American Revolution place Hannah Arnett?"  On July 21 of that year, William O. McDowell, a great-grandson of Hannah White Arnett, published an article in the Washington Post offering to help form a society to be known as the Daughters of the American Revolution. The first meeting of the society was held August 9, 1890.
The first DAR chapter was organized on October 11, 1890, at the Strathmore Arms, the home of Mary Smith Lockwood, one of the DAR's four co-founders. Other founders were Eugenia Washington, a great-grandniece of George Washington, Ellen Hardin Walworth, and Mary Desha. They had also held organizational meetings in August 1890. Other attendees in October were Sons of the American Revolution members Registrar General Dr. George Brown Goode, Secretary General A. Howard Clark, William O. McDowell (SAR member #1), Wilson L. Gill (secretary at the inaugural meeting), and 18 other people.
The First Lady, Caroline Lavina Scott Harrison, wife of President Benjamin Harrison, lent her prestige to the founding of DAR, and served as its first President General. Having initiated a renovation of the White House, she was interested in historic preservation. She helped establish the goals of DAR, which was incorporated by congressional charter in 1896.
In this same period, such organizations as the Colonial Dames of America, the Mary Washington Memorial Society, Preservation of the Virginia Antiquities, United Daughters of the Confederacy, and Sons of Confederate Veterans were also founded. This was in addition to numerous fraternal and civic organizations flourishing in this period.
The DAR chapters raised funds to initiate a number of historic preservation and patriotic endeavors. They began a practice of installing markers at the graves of Revolutionary War veterans to indicate their service, and adding small flags at their gravesites on Memorial Day.
Other activities included commissioning and installing monuments to battles and other sites related to the War. The DAR recognized women patriots' contributions as well as those of soldiers. For instance, they installed a monument at the site of a spring where Polly Hawkins Craig and other women got water to use against flaming arrows, in the defense of Bryan Station (present-day Lexington, Kentucky).
In addition to installing markers and monuments, DAR chapters have purchased, preserved and operated historic houses and other sites associated with the war. See "DAR Historic Sites and Database" for a map and database of DAR sites.
Segregation and exclusion of African-Americans
In 1932 the DAR adopted a rule excluding African-American musicians from performing at DAR Constitution Hall in response to complaints by some members against "mixed seating," as both blacks and whites were attracted to concerts of black artists. Washington, D.C., had segregated facilities under laws established by a Congress that supported segregation, which administered the city at the time. In 1945, African-American jazz singer Hazel Scott (then the wife of New York Democratic Congressman Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.) was excluded from performing at Constitution Hall.
In October 1945, the DAR invited First Lady Bess Truman to a tea at the hall, which she accepted. Congressman Powell protested and asked Truman not to attend the tea. She chose to go, but said publicly that she opposed discrimination (as did her husband). The White House received letters asking Bess Truman to resign from the DAR in protest of their policy; she declined to do so. Other letters supported her having attended the tea. The DAR did not officially reverse its "white performers only" policy until 1952.
Marian Anderson controversy
During the period of segregation and exclusion, in 1936 Sol Hurok, the manager of noted singer Marian Anderson, an African-Americancontralto, tried to book her at the DAR Constitution Hall. Owing to the "white performers only" policy, the DAR refused the booking. In 1939, Hurok, along with the NAACP and Howard University, petitioned the DAR to make an exception to their policy for Anderson, which the organization declined. Hurok tried to find a local high school for a performance, but the only suitable venue was an auditorium at a white high school (the public schools were segregated). The school board refused to allow Anderson to perform there.
The First LadyEleanor Roosevelt invited Anderson to the White House to perform especially for her and President Roosevelt. During this time, Anderson came under considerable pressure from the NAACP to refuse to perform for segregated audiences. Eleanor Roosevelt resigned from her membership of the DAR in protest at their treatment of Anderson. Roosevelt and the Marian Anderson Committee arranged for the singer to give her concert on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, with the Mall of Washington as her auditorium. Symbolically, the concert took place on Easter Sunday, April 9, 1939.
The DAR later apologized to Anderson and welcomed her to Constitution Hall on a number of occasions. In 1942 she starred at a benefit concert for war relief during World War II. In 1964, the year of passage of the Civil Rights Act, Anderson chose Constitution Hall as the place to launch her farewell American tour. In 1992, at the opening night ceremonies of the DAR annual convention, the DAR awarded Marian Anderson the Centennial Medallion, which honors women who gave outstanding service to the nation. Owing to poor health, Anderson was unable to attend; the medallion and certificate were delivered to her at her home. On January 27, 2005, the DAR co-hosted the first "day of issue" dedication ceremony with the U.S. Postal Service, at which the Marian Anderson commemorative stamp was introduced and Anderson's family was honored.
First African-American member of DAR
In October 1977, Karen Batchelor Farmer (now Karen Batchelor) of Detroit, Michigan, was admitted as the first known African-American member of the DAR. Batchelor started her genealogical research in 1976 as a young mother who wanted to commemorate the American bicentennial year in a way that had special meaning for her family. Within 26 months, she had traced her family history back to the American Revolution. Batchelor traced part of her ancestry to a patriot, William Hood, an Irish-born soldier who served in the colonial militia in Pennsylvania during the Revolution in the defense of Fort Freeland.
With the help of the late James Dent Walker, head of Genealogical Services at the National Archives in Washington, D.C., Batchelor was contacted by the Ezra Parker Chapter in Royal Oak, Michigan, who invited her to join their chapter. In December 1977, Batchelor's admission as the first known African-American member of DAR sparked international interest after it was featured in a story on page one of the New York Times. She was invited to appear on Good Morning America, where she was interviewed by John Lindsay, former mayor of New York and regular guest host.
Batchelor co-founded the Fred Hart Williams Genealogical Society in 1979, an organization in Detroit for African-American family research. She continues to research her own family history and inspire others to do the same.
In March 1984, Lena Lorraine Santos Ferguson, a retired school secretary, was denied membership in a Washington, D.C. chapter of the DAR because she was black, according to a report by the Washington Post. Her two white sponsors, Margaret M. Johnston and Elizabeth E. Thompson, were dismayed at their chapter response. Ferguson met the lineage requirements and could trace her ancestry to Jonah Gay, a white man who fought in Maine.
When asked for comment, Sarah M. King, the President General of the DAR, told the Washington Post that the DAR's chapters have autonomy in determining members. She made impolitic comments about the chapter's decision. After King's comments were reported, outrage erupted and the D.C. City Council threatened to revoke the DAR's real estate tax exemption. King quickly corrected her error, saying that Ferguson should have been admitted, and that her application had been handled "inappropriately." Representing Ferguson pro bono, lawyers from the Washington law firm of Hogan & Hartson began working with King to develop positive ways for the DAR to ensure that blacks would not be discriminated against in future application for membership. The DAR changed its bylaws to bar discrimination "on the basis of race or creed." In addition, King announced a resolution to recognize "the heroic contributions of black patriots in the American Revolution".
Ferguson was admitted to the DAR chapter. "I wanted to honor my mother and father as well as my black and white heritage," Ferguson said after being admitted. "And I want to encourage other black women to embrace their own rich history, because we're all Americans." She became chairwoman and founder of the D.C. DAR Scholarship Committee. Ferguson died in March 2004 at the age of 75.
Focus on racial diversity
Since the mid-1980s, the DAR has supported a project to identify the names of African Americans, Native Americans, and individuals of mixed race who were patriots of the American Revolution, expanding their recognition beyond soldiers. In 2008, DAR published Forgotten Patriots: African American and American Indian Patriots in the Revolutionary War. This is available for free online, as is a supplement published in 2012.
In 2007, the DAR posthumously honored Mary Hemings Bell, a former slave of Thomas Jefferson at Monticello, as a "Patriot of the Revolution." During the war, Hemings and other household slaves had been taken by Jefferson to the state capital Richmond to work for him after he was elected governor of Virginia. When the British invaded the city, they took Hemings and the other slaves at the governor's house as prisoners; Hemings and the other slaves were later released. (The American government officials had already escaped to Monticello and Charlottesville.)
After the war, Hemings gained informal freedom when her common-law husband, Thomas Bell, a white merchant from Charlottesville, purchased her and their two mixed-race children from Jefferson. She was forced to leave her two older children, Joseph Fossett and Betsy Hemmings (as she spelled it), enslaved at Monticello. After Bell's death, Mary and their two children inherited his estate. She kept in touch with her large extended family, still enslaved at Monticello, and aided her children there. When Jefferson's slaves were sold after his death in 1826 to settle his debts, she purchased family members to help keep families intact. Since Hemings Bell has been honored as a Patriot, all of her female descendants qualify for membership in the DAR.
In June 2012, Wilhelmena Rhodes Kelly and Dr. Olivia Cousins became charter members of a chapter with numerous African-American members, in Queens, New York; five of the 13 charter members are African American. Kelly, who organized the diverse chapter, was installed as the Charter Regent and Dr. Cousins as a chapter officer. Two of Dr. Cousins' sisters, Collette Cousins, who lives in Durham, North Carolina, and Michelle Wherry, who lives in Lewis Center, Ohio, pledged to travel to Queens for the monthly chapter meetings.
- The DAR Museum was founded in 1890 as a repository for family treasures. Today, the museum contains over 30,000 historical relics that form a collective memory of the decorative and fine arts in America from 1700-1850.
- The DAR Library was founded in 1896 as a collection of genealogical and historical publications for the use of staff genealogists verifying application papers for the National Society Daughters of the American Revolution. Shortly after 1900 the growing collection was opened to the public and has remained so ever since.
- The U. S. Army appointed DAR member, Dr. Anita Newcomb McGee, as Acting Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Army, in charge of nurses. She organized the DAR Hospital Corps, Army Nurse Corps, and served as NSDAR's first Librarian General.
- The DAR Hospital Corps certified 1,081 nurses for service during the Spanish–American War. DAR later funded pensions for many of these nurses who did not qualify for government pensions.
- During the Spanish–American War, DAR purchased a ship's tender for the USS Missouri to be used as a hospital launch for transporting the wounded from shore to ship.
- To help with the war effort during World War I, DAR loaned its National Headquarters land to the United States. The federal government used the land to erect a temporary war office building that provided office space for 600 people.
- After World War I, DAR funded the reconstruction of the water system in the village of Tilloloy, France, and donated more than $130,000 for the support of 3,600 French war orphans.
- DAR provided materials for sewing, wood, and leatherwork to the immigrants detained for processing on Ellis Island. This helped to alleviate the depression and anxiety of these men and women who were strangers in a new land.
-  In 1921, DAR compiled and published the "DAR Manual for Citizenship." DAR distributed this guide to American immigrants at Ellis Island and other ports of entry. To date, more than 10 million manuals have been distributed.
- From November 1921 until February 1922, world leaders met in DAR Memorial Continental Hall for the Conference on Limitation of Armaments, a groundbreaking meeting for peace.
- The Americana Collection, founded in the early 1940s, brought together rare manuscripts and imprints previously scattered among the holdings of the DAR Museum and DAR Library. Today, the collection flourishes from more than 60 years of actively seeking out and acquiring artifacts that reflect a unique image of our nation.
- DAR raised thousands of dollars to assist in the re-forestation project of the U.S. Forest Service during the 1940s.
- During World War II, DAR provided 197,000 soldiers with care packages and sponsored all 89 crews of Landing Craft Infantry ships.
- During World War II, the use of the DAR buildings was given to the American Red Cross. A children's day nursery was set up in the basement of Constitution Hall for enlisted men's wives who had to go to work.
- The tradition of celebrating the Constitution was started many years ago by the Daughters of the American Revolution. In 1955, the DAR petitioned Congress to set aside September 17–23 annually to be dedicated for the observance of Constitution Week. The resolution was later adopted by the U. S. Congress and signed into Public Law #915 on August 2, 1956, by President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
There are nearly 180,000 current members of the DAR in approximately 3,000 chapters across the United States and in several other countries. More than 940,000 women have joined the organization since its founding 125 years ago. The organization describes itself as,"one of the most inclusive genealogical societies" in the United States, noting on its website that, "any woman 18 years or older — regardless of race, religion, or ethnic background — who can prove lineal descent from a patriot of the American Revolution, is eligible for membership".
Membership in the DAR today is open to all women, regardless of race or religion, who can prove lineal bloodline descent from an ancestor who aided in achieving United States independence. The National Society DAR is the final arbiter of the acceptability of the documentation of all applications for membership.
Qualifying participation in achieving independence includes the following:
The DAR published a book, available online , an extensive resource with the names of thousands of minority patriots, to enable family and historical research. Its online Genealogical Research System (GRS)  provides access to an extensive database, and it is digitizing family Bibles to collect more information for research.
The organization has chapters in all 50 U.S. states and in the District of Columbia. DAR chapters have been founded in Australia, Austria, the Bahamas, Bermuda, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Spain, and the United Kingdom.
The DAR contributes more than $1 million annually to support six schools that provide for a variety of special student needs. Supported schools:
- Kate Duncan Smith DAR School, Grant, Alabama
- Tamassee DAR School, Tamassee, South Carolina
- Crossnore School, Crossnore, North Carolina
- Hillside School, Marlborough, Massachusetts
- Hindman Settlement School, Hindman, Kentucky
- Berry College, Mount Berry, Georgia
In addition, the DAR provides $70,000 to $100,000 in scholarships and funds to American Indian youth at Chemawa Indian School, Salem, Oregon; Bacone College, Muskogee, Oklahoma; and the Indian Youth of America Summer Camp Program.
DAR members participate in a variety of veteran and citizenship-oriented projects, including:
- Providing more than 200,000 hours of volunteer time annually to veterans in U.S. Veterans Administration hospitals and non-VA facilities
- Offering support to America's service personnel in current conflicts abroad through care packages, phone cards and other needed items
- Sponsoring special programs promoting the Constitution during its official celebration week of September 17–23
- Participating in naturalization ceremonies
Exhibits and library at DAR Headquarters
The DAR maintains an extensive genealogical library at its headquarters in Washington, DC and provides guides for individuals doing family research. Its bookstore presents the latest scholarship on United States and women's history.
Temporary exhibits in the galleries have featured women's arts and crafts, including items from the DAR's valuable quilt and embroidery collections. Exhibit curators provide a social and historical context for girls' and women's arts in such exhibits, for instance, explaining practices of mourning reflected in certain kinds of embroidery samplers, as well as ideals expressed about the new republic. Permanent exhibits include American furniture, silver and furnishings.
In 1989, the DAR established the NSDAR Literacy Promotion Committee, which coordinates the efforts of DAR volunteers to promote child and adult literacy. Volunteers teach English, tutor reading, prepare students for GED examinations, raise funds for literacy programs, and participate in many other ways.
American history essay contest
Each year, the DAR conducts a national American history essay contest among students in grades 5 through 8. A different topic is selected each year. Essays are judged "for historical accuracy, adherence to topic, organization of materials, interest, originality, spelling, grammar, punctuation, and neatness." The contest is conducted locally by the DAR chapters. Chapter winners compete against each other by region and nationally; national winners receive a monetary award.
The DAR awards $150,000 per year in scholarships to high school graduates, and music, law, nursing, and medical school students. Only two of the 20 scholarships offered are restricted to DAR members or their descendants.
- Dr. Betsy Boze, American academic, Chief Executive Officer and Dean, Kent State University Stark
- Laura Bush, former First Lady of the United States
- Rosalynn Carter, former First Lady of the United States, politician, political and social activist
- Bo Derek, actress, former model, and conservative political activist
- Elizabeth Dole, former U.S. Senator from North Carolina, former transportation secretary, labor secretary, American Red Cross president, Federal Trade Commissioner, presidential candidate, and presidential advisor
- Tammy Duckworth, American Army veteran, former U.S. Representative, and as of 2017, U.S. Senator from Illinois. Duckworth is depicted along with Molly Pitcher in a statue sponsored by the DAR Illinois chapter and dedicated to women veterans on the grounds of the Brehm Memorial Library in Mt. Vernon, Illinois
- Candace Whittemore Lovely, painter
- Stephanie Moulton Sarkis, writer and psychotherapist
- Margaret Rhea Seddon, NASA astronaut
- Jane Addams, activist and Nobel Peace Prize winner
- Susan B. Anthony, American suffragist
- Lillie Stella Acer Ballagh, national chairman of Colonial Relics
- Clara Barton, American Red Cross founder
- Cora M. Beach, State Chairman and member of National Committee for Genealogical and Historical Research
- Leah Belle Kepner Boyce, State Recording and Secretary of the California Daughters of the American Revolution
- Olivia Dudley Bucknam, Hollywood chapter
- Vinnie B. Clark, established and developed the Geography Department at the San Diego State Teachers College
- Inez Mabel Crawford, first registrar of the General Edward Hand Chapter
- Estelle Skidmore Doremus, supporter of the New York Philharmonic
- Saidie Orr Dunbar, Executive Secretary of the Oregon Tuberculosis Association
- Caroline B. Eager, American philanthropist who worked mainly with the Igorot people of the Philippine Islands
- Mary Baker Eddy, founder of Christian Science church
- Isabel H. Ellis, Rubidoux Chapter
- Infanta Eulalia of Spain, Spanish princess and author
- Inglis Fletcher, American writer
- Abigail Keasey Frankel, prominent club and civic worker of Portland. She was the first President of the Oregon Federation of Business and Professional Women
- Dale Pickett Gay, Wyoming clubwoman and one of the best known women of her time in the oil business
- Lillian Gish, actress
- Fannie Smith Goble, held several high offices in Daughters of the American Revolution organization
- Isophene Goodin Bailhache, national vice chairman of Historic Spots, State Officer, Chapter Regent
- Gene Grabeel, mathematician and cryptanalyst who founded the Venona project
- Harriet A. Haas, attorney and member of Piedmont Board of Education
- Sallie Foster Harshbarger, from 1920 to 1922, State Regent of the Daughters of the American Revolution
- Caroline Harrison, former First Lady of the United States
- Grace Hopper, Rear Admiral, USNR
- Nancy A. Leatherwood, national chairman of Historical and Literary Reciprocity Committee of the Daughters of the American Revolution
- Colonel Westray Battle Long, Director of the Women's Army Corps
- Edith Bolte MacCracken, State Regent of the Daughters of the American Revolution
- Virginia Donaghe McClurg, member
- Ruth Karr McKee, member
- Moina Michael, educator and originator of Memorial Day Poppies
- Anita Newcomb McGee, founder of the Army Nurse Corps
- Bessie Morse, founder of The Morse School of Expression, St. Louis
- Sara E. Morse, held positions in several organizations
- Grandma Moses, folk artist
- Alice Curtice Moyer
- Jacqueline Noel, leader in promoting the colonial history of the United States
- Fannie Brown Patrick, musician and leader in civic and social affairs
- Alice Paul, American suffragist
- Edith Allen Phelps, twice president of the Oklahoma Library Association, the first professional in the Library Science field in the Oklahoma City system
- Sarah Childress Polk, First Lady of the United States
- Frances Porcher, officer of the Jefferson Chapter
- Ada E. Purpus, member
- Janet Reno, former Attorney General of the United States
- Ginger Rogers, actress and dancer
- Eleanor Roosevelt, First Lady of the United States. She resigned her membership in protest of racism.
- Fannie Forbis Russel, one of the pioneer women of the state of Montana
- Phyllis Schlafly, conservative political activist and writer
- M. Elizabeth Shellabarger, Registered Nurse, army nurse overseas during World War I and director of American Red Cross Nursing Service in Albania and Montenegro
- Jessamine Shumate, noted artist and cartographer
- Margaret Chase Smith, US Congresswoman and US Senator
- Helen Norton Stevens, Lady Stirling Chapter
- Vera Blanche Thomas, president of the Arizona State Nurses' Association from 1927 to 1928
- Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, sculptor, art patron and collector, and founder in 1931 of the Whitney Museum of American Art
- Agnes Wright Spring, member
A memorial to the Daughters of the American Revolution's four founders, at Constitution Hall in Washington, D.C., was dedicated on April 17, 1929. It was sculpted by Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney, a DAR member.
- ^ abcpreserving historical properties and artifacts and promoting patriotism within their communities. "Become a Member". Daughters of the American Revolution.
- ^2017 Continental Congress membership report
- ^Daughters of the American Revolution. (2013). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from 
- ^Maslin Nir, Sarah (3 July 2012). "For Daughters of the American Revolution, a New Chapter". The New York Times Company. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- ^Plys, Kate (4 July 1991). "I Had Luncheon With the DAR". Sun-Times Media. Chicago Reader. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
- ^"The Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum." Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum - Marian Anderson. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May 2016.
- ^ abcDaughters of the American Revolution Magazine. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
- ^National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution 1991, p. 22.
- ^ ab"Exhibit: Eleanor Roosevelt Letter". NARA. 1939-02-26. Retrieved 2006-10-08.
- ^"D.A.R. Refuses Auditorium to Hazel Scott; Constitution Hall for 'White Artists Only'", New York Times, 12 October 1945, accessed 5 August 2012
- ^Sale, Sara L. Bess Wallace Truman: Harry's White House "Boss", University Press of Kansas, 2010. ISBN 9780700617418
- ^Kennedy Center, "Biography of Marian Anderson"Archived January 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine..
- ^ ab"Marian Anderson at the MET: The 50th Anniversary, Early Career". The Metropolitan Opera Guild, Inc. 2005. Retrieved 2006-10-08.
- ^"WGBH American Experience . Eleanor Roosevelt | PBS". American Experience. Retrieved 2016-04-05.
- ^"D.A.R. NOW INVITES MARIAN ANDERSON; Singer, Barred From Capital Hall in 1939, Is Asked to Give First of War Aid Concerts". New York Times. 1942-09-30. pp. Obits. pp. 25. Retrieved 2006-10-08.
- ^"Marian Anderson at the MET: The 50th Anniversary, Late Life". The Metropolitan Opera Guild, Inc. 2005. Retrieved 2006-10-08.
- ^"Legendary Singer Marian Anderson Returns to Constitution Hall On U.S. Postage Stamp" (Press release). United States Postal Service. 2005-01-04. Archived from the original on 2006-11-11. Retrieved 2006-10-08.
- ^"Karen Farmer"Archived 2009-12-17 at the Wayback Machine., American Libraries 39 (February 1978), p. 70; Negro Almanac, pp. 73,1431; Who's Who among Africans, 14th ed., p. 405.
- ^Northumberland County in the American Revolution, 1976, pp. 156, 171.
- ^Stevens, William K. (1977-12-28). "A Detroit Black Woman's Roots Lead to a Welcome in the D.A.R.; Black Woman's Roots Lead to a Welcome in D.A.R". The New York Times.
- ^ abcdeKessler, Ronald (1984-03-12). "Sponsors Claim Race Is Stumbling Block". Washington Post. p. 1.
- ^ ab"Forgotten Patriots". Daughters of the American Revolution.
- ^Annette Gordon-Reed, The Hemingses of Monticello: An American Family, New York: W. W. Norton & Co., pp. 410, 484
- ^American Spirit Magazine, Daughters of the American Revolution, January–February 2009, p. 4
- ^Maslin Nir, Sarah (2012-07-03). "For Daughters of the American Revolution, a New Chapter". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-07-05.
- ^"NSDAR Web page".
- ^ ab"DAR History". Daughters of the American Revolution. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
- ^"DAR Supported Schools". DAR. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- ^"Work of the Society: DAR Schools". DAR. Retrieved 2009-07-29.
- ^"Literacy Promotion". DAR. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- ^"American History Essay". DAR. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- ^"Scholarships". DAR. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
- ^Meet Our Deans
- ^ abcd
The Sanctioned Emotional, Physical and Sexual Abuse of Chidren in Tanzania
Ⅳ. Form and Context
Child abuse has, in this paper, been mentioned with reference to the act of harming a child emotionally, physically or sexually. According to a definition of child abuse by Australian Institute of Family Studies (2012) which has been adopted by Bromfield (2005) and Christoffel, et al., (1992);
"Child maltreatment refers to any non-accidental behaviour by parents, caregivers, other adults or older adolescents that is outside the norms of conduct and entails a substantial risk of causing physical or emotional harm to a child or young person. Such behaviours may be intentional or unintentional and can include acts of omission (i.e., neglect) and commission (i.e., abuse)" (Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2012).
The above definition has further categorized abuse of children into physical, emotional, sexual, neglect and witnessing family violence (Australian Institute of Family Studies, 2012). For the purpose of this study, three forms of emotional, physical and sexual abuses in Tanzania will be discussed.Physical Abuse
Corporal punishment is one of the major ways that physical abuse has commonly been executed on children. Tanzania society widely believes in disciplining a child and considers the use of corporal punishment for this purpose.
"Corporal punishment is lawful in the home in mainland Tanzania and in Zanzibar. Provisions against violence and abuse in the Penal Codes and other laws are not interpreted as prohibiting corporal punishment in childrearing. In mainland Tanzania, the Law of the Child Act (2009) states that parents should protect children from all forms of violence (article 9), includes beatings which cause harm in the definition of child abuse (article 3) and prohibits "torture, or other cruel, inhuman punishment or degrading treatment" (article 13). However, it allows for "justifiable" correction (article 13) and does not exclude all forms of corporal punishment from such correction. In Zanzibar, article 14 of the Children's Act (2011) states that "no child shall be subjected to violence, torture, or other cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment or treatment or any cultural or traditional practice which dehumanizes or is injurious to his physical and mental wellbeing" but it also states that "parents may discipline their children in such a manner which shall not amount to injury to the child's physical and mental wellbeing": this is not interpreted as prohibiting all corporal punishment in childrearing" (Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children, 2012 p.2).
Similarly, caning in Tanzania schools is still legal and a common form of punishing students for misbehaving, failure to complete assignments or underperformance.
Corporal punishment is lawful in schools in mainland Tanzania under the National Corporal Punishment Regulations (1979) pursuant to article 60 of the National Education Act (1978), which authorises the minister to make regulations "to provide for and control the administration of corporal punishment in schools". The Law of the Child Act does not does not repeal this provision or prohibit corporal punishment in schools. Government guidelines in 2000 reduced the number of strokes from six to four and stated that only the heads of schools are allowed to administer the punishment, with penalties for teachers who flout these regulations. In Zanzibar, the Ministry of Education has adopted a policy against corporal punishment in schools, but it remains lawful under the 1982 Education Act. The Zanzibar Children's Act does not explicitly prohibit corporal punishment in schools. In rejecting the recommendations to prohibit corporal punishment made during the UPR in 2011, the Government asserted that "corporal punishment does not apply in the education system" but that caning is administered in schools and is "a legitimate and acceptable form of punishment [not intended to] be violent, abusive or degrading" (12 March 2012, A/HRC/19/4/Add.1, Working Group Report: Addendum, para. 86(47)) (Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children, 2012 p.2).
Corporal punishment in Tanzania not only is generally acceptable in the society, it exists legally. And whereas the law seems to be providing guidance that can protect children from vulnerability to violence through the execution of corporal punishment, simply allowing this form of punishment to exist increases a potential for excessive violence in particular, because at the execution level it is not easy to ensure adherence to policy guidelines. Megan Randall who is a World Teacher volunteer from USA teaching at Morogoro Secondary School describes her experience with corporal punishment in this school:
"Expectations are so high that if students perform poorly on their weekly tests (scoring below 50 usually) then their teachers will cane (hit them on the hands with sticks taken from the woods) as punishment.
In all my time at Moro Sec and in Tanzania in general, caning has been the most difficult cultural custom for me to stomach. In America if a teacher hits a student he/she could go to jail! It could be considered as child abuse and serious measures would be taken to ensure the student's future safety so that such an event would not happen again. For sure, if you think back to what American classrooms were like fifty years ago it was normalized back then for teachers to hit students to whip them into shape. They used rulers rather than sticks, but they still beat students harshly for misbehaving. But that was fifty years ago and we've come a long way since then. It's no longer okay to hit a student for misbehaving. Instead we mandate bad students to serve detention to complete their homework individually in silence under the watchful and attentive eye of a teacher. What's more, the punishment happens after school hours so that the students' studies are not interrupted as a consequence of their misconduct.
In Tanzania, things are very different. At any given moment while I'm teaching a class it is highly probable that a colleague of mine will come to my class, interrupt my lesson and beckon several students to leave class to be punished. They can be punished in several ways. They could be caned by a teacher; forced to clean the school grounds by sweeping up petals and leaves that fall from trees outside or washing the concrete floors of the school with old rags and buckets of water; or told to slash (use machete-like clubs to manually cut grass - there's no such thing as lawn mowers here...) the overgrown grass on campus. Since the school does not have employees whose jobs are to attend to these cleaning and maintenance tasks, the school - in a way - is dependent on students misbehaving in order to keep up its aesthetic appeal. I find this outrageously frustrating! How can a school be dependent on students misbehaving in order to maintain a good appearance? Then again, maybe it's not so much a dependent relationship as it is a causal reality - there will always be some students that will misbehave, so perhaps the school is putting two and two together and figuring that it might as well use students for free labor that will consistently get done" (Randall, 2011).
My personal experience of being raised and schooled in Tanzania is also evidence of how hard it is to control adherence to guidelines on the execution of corporal punishment. I was lucky that my parents did not believe in corporal punishment at home and we had a discussion when there was an occasion of misbehaviour. The consequences of corporal punishment that I had to encounter during my first four years of secondary education have had a lifetime impact both on my friends and me as indicated in the brief description below.
When I went to a school, however, I became a victim of excessive violence in the name of corporal punishment. The first major incident happened to me when I was 15 years old studying at Njombe Secondary School, a boys boarding school then. In this school at this time, caning was not only performed by teachers but also by student captains who were mandated by teachers to cane "misbehaving" students as well. One night my friends and I were summoned by the student captains to their room. When upon arrival I noticed a bunch of thick long sticks on the floor, I knew immediately what was prepared for us as the act of being summoned by student captains in this school had its exclusive repute. The moment we entered, the door was locked and the interrogation started. We had missed what was called the self-reliance project earlier that afternoon. The self-reliance project was intensive farm work that supposedly prepares students to become self-reliant and self-employed in the agriculture sector after finishing school. Before presenting our cases on why we were absent from the self-reliance project that afternoon, a violent beating started. I was certain that I could not handle the occasion and had already figured my way out of it - to jump out of the window of that second floor room.
That night was the end of my school life in Njombe Secondary School and the beginning of my life as a street child in Mbeya city where I ran after escaping from the punishment. I was fortunate that my parents made every effort they could to track me and return me home a couple of months later. I have no news of Geoffrey, a friend I ran away with who disappeared in the Mbeya streets minutes before I was rescued and brought home.
One year later I was at Irambo Secondary School, again a boarding school. The food provided in this school was unpleasant and it was common for students to escape from school to go to a nearby village to do what we called "a change of diet". On this day my friend Moses and I felt we had had enough of food at school and therefore we escaped for a change of diet. Our absence was noted by the headmaster, who eagerly awaited our return. The moment we arrived back at school in the late afternoon we were invited into headmaster's office and the school assembly was called. The headmaster had found an opportunity to warn the entire student body against "escaping for a change of diet behaviour".
All teachers and students were summoned into the assembly. When everybody was ready, standing on a cold afternoon on a dusty assembly ground, Moses and I were escorted to the assembly, our hands tied at the back with thick sisal rope. After a short warning speech from the headmaster to the students, teachers were invited to "teach us a lesson". They picked up sticks one after the other, executing the punishment without caring what part of the body received the beating. Our crying voices went fading into the air and I have no idea how long this exercise went on. It must have been an hour or so, all I still remember is that it was going on forever.
On that night our legs were tied as well and we were left to sleep in a smoky kitchen behind the school cafeteria. When we finally got released next morning I had a hard time contemplating what to do next. I could see how disappointed my parents would be if I quit school again, I had no option but to go on, after all I was not far from finishing. As for my friend Moses the decision was clear, he would not stay here again and that was the end of Moses' education. I have continued to be in contact with him for some time and he is still hurting for not being able to complete his secondary education because the art work he is currently doing, he believes, would be far much better if he was more educated.
In homes that administer corporal punishment, there is no control as to how much they remain within parameters that protect a child from excessive violence. In a society that has maintained an extended family support system, corporal punishment at home can get uglier. Whereas cases of parents administering severe punishment on their own children are common, a higher level of severity of these punishments can be noted in cases where children have been left to live in extended families.
WAVUTI (2012B) reports a case of a 9 year old girl Nase Yonah who had been repeatedly receiving beatings from her aunt Anna Minja who is also a teacher at Narumu Primary School. News about Nase's abuse became public through the media after she was admitted to Kilimanjaro Regional Hospital. Ms. Minja is accused of repeatedly beating her niece with a thick wire. Nase was rescued when women who sell fruits and vegetables observed that on a number of occasions Nase came to shop at the market, went back home and returned after a short while crying. After being interrogated by the women Nase explained that her aunt was always beating her. On this particular occasion Nase was accused of not bringing home what she was sent to buy. She was given Tsh. 2,000 (about US$1.5) to buy plantains, tomatoes and a quarter of a kilo of beef, but she only bought plantains and tomatoes either believing that that was all she was sent to buy or because she did not have enough money for everything. To rescue Nase from further beating, the women sellers gave her some more money to buy the meat to take back to her aunt. Nase however, came running back again to the women and crying. At this point the women furthered their interrogation and found out many scars old and new on Nase's body and decided to take her to the police station and later to the hospital.
Michuzi (2012), reports on a 3 year old girl, Aneth, who was burnt with hot water and forced to eat her own excrement by her aunt in Mbeya city. Neighbours forced their way in the house where little Aneth was making horrific crying sounds and found her left hand badly burnt. The aunt, Ms. Bahati Rukangara is said to be the sister of Aneth's mother, who lives in the northern city of Mwanza and had allowed her little daughter to be taken to live with her sister as part of an extended family care arrangement. Following this discovery, baby Aneth was taken to hospital by neighbours while her aunt was taken to police and Aneth's mother informed of the incident.
Both Nase's and Aneth's incidents describe the popular form and context of child abuse in Tanzania that call for increased attention. As mentioned above, whereas there is rampant physical abuse of children by parents to their own children, severe abuse can be identified more in the context of extended family care. This traditional way of supporting each other in a community has many benefits but has been also a place where many children's rights have been violated. It is common for relatives to ask to go and live with children of their siblings indicating goodwill especially in cases where there is loss of a parent or economic inability to support children.
Promises to support and care for such children, however, have been violated and children have been turned into ill-treated housemaids, Nase being a typical example, or in other extreme cases they, have been turned into sex workers. According to Malya (2013), a girl known as Sara Tarimo, now 27 years old served as a sex worker in an informal brothel in Dar es Salaam for ten years. Sara was taken from her parents' home in Babati town of northern Tanzania by a female relative Ms. Abia Lucas who lived in Dar es Salaam after the death of her own mother. When Sara's mother passed away, Sara who never knew her father was in primary school and Ms. Abia's offer to take her was considered to be a big relief to the family. She was promised that in Dar es Salaam she would have the opportunity to continue schooling.
When she arrived in the city, Sara was given new clothes which she describes as short skirts and pants and short tops which exposed most of her body parts. She was offered her own room and that same night an older man entered into her room and raped her. Sara's attempts to shout and call for help did not bear fruit and that was the beginning of her long ten years of sexual work in a house where she was not allowed to go out unescorted. Sara, who is now infected with HIV describes her first intercourse as a rape that occurred when she was thirteen.
In other cases, severe physical abuse of children has occurred when there is separation or divorce and children have had to go and live with a stepparent. WAVUTI (2011) reports a case of 8-year old Dickson Mujarifu a first-grade pupil at Dukamba primary school who was saved by other children after calling for help when they passed near his house. The children who were Dickson's schoolmates were passing on their way to school when they heard Dickson's cry for help. They went to the back of Dickson's house and saw that his stepmother and his father Dafroza Masilu (25) and Hezron Mujarifu (35), had hung him by his feet. They ran to report to their teachers who came to Dickson's rescue and took him to hospital. Doctors at the hospital reported that Dickson's body had many scars, which indicated that he had been repeatedly physically abused.Sexial Abuse
In Tanzania sex and sexuality are taboo topics. "Traditionally, in many societies, the issue of sexuality was considered a secret and the domain of adults. Sexual knowledge and education were part and parcel of initiation into adulthood for both males and females" (Setel, n.d). This taboo notion of sex and sexuality is important in developing an understanding of the silence that surrounds the sexual abuse of children - "secret and the domain of adults".
There is also a link between sex and impurity. Fishermen in the coastal areas of Tanzania reportedly believed that sexual intercourse makes one impure and this impurity prevents successful fishing especially because it disturbs evil spirits who live in the waters.
"For coastal fishermen, whether married or not, it is taboo not to have a bath after having sex before fishing. This is due to a belief that having intercourse dirties the body. The ocean is home of evil spirits and, according to beliefs, they dislike meeting with an impure person. This taboo is strictly adhered to in order to avoid misfortune during fishing activities" (Coral Reef, 2009 P.2).
Women's menstruation is also considered to be a sensitive matter of sexuality in Tanzanian society. Menstruation is a matter that cannot be mentioned in public or openly discussed and has highly been associated with impurity. Again taking the example of Tanzanian coastal fishermen, the majority of whom are Muslim, one can notice this notion of impurity associated with sexuality.
"According to Islamic religion, a menstruating woman is considered impure. She is not allowed to fast, pray or read the Koran. Additionally, to avoid misfortune it is taboo for a menstruating woman to go fishing. This taboo involuntarily protects fishing habitats on the near shore reefs" (Coral Reef, 2009 P.2).
The secretiveness and taboo notion of sex and sexuality can begin to explain the silence that is maintained when a child is sexually abused. Since sex must be secret, outside knowledge about this activity will shame a person who has been involved in the activity. The patriarchal nature of society however, could increase this shame even more for females. Coupled with the shame that comes from the sense of impurity linked to menstrual periods, females of this society are especially more vulnerable to shame associated with sexual activity. Victims of this shame however are not limited to the single victim, but may also include the family.
Matters of sexual abuse get increasingly complicated when considering the perpetrators of the action. These people are members of the family as in the case of a woman with her three children or the neighbours as in a case of the ten-year old girl presented in section three of this paper. Sometimes these people are highly respected or influential people. WAVUTI (2012C) reports an incident of a 9-year old boy who was raped by a cleaner of a mosque in Dodoma. According to this report, the boy was raped in a mosque toilet after being promised Tsh. 500 (equivalent of quarter of a dollar). The sensitivity of the premise that the abuse has occurred and the popularity of the perpetrator are enough to make the abuse of a child a secret never to be disclosed to anyone.Emotional Abuse
Emotional abuse often times does not get appropriately acknowledged or even recognized. From an emotional state of an adult it is easy for emotional abuse of a child to sprout. Skuse (1989) describes emotional abuse as an action or actions that "verbally harass" a child:
"Emotional abuse refers to the habitual verbal harassment of a child by disparagement, criticism, threat and ridicule, and the inversion of love; by verbal and non-verbal means rejection and withdrawal are substituted. Neglect comprises both a lack of physical caretaking and supervision and a failure to engage the developmental needs of the child in terms of cognitive stimulation" (p.1692).
Child verbal harassment is a common feature that may not be easily recognizable in Tanzania. Report from a survey by UNICEF indicates high prevalence of this form of abuse.
"Approximately one-quarter of females and nearly 3 out of every 10 males aged 13 to 24 years reported experiences of emotional violence by an adult prior to turning 18. Between 4% and 5% of females and males aged 13 to 24 years reported that they were threatened with abandonment by an adult prior to turning 18 years of age" (UNICEF Tanzania, 2011 p.2).
Apparently these different forms of abuse tend to overlap with each other and emotional abuse can easily be found in abuse of other forms.
"Females and males who experienced sexual violence also tended to report exposure to physical and emotional violence. More than 8 in 10 females and males aged 13 to 24 years who experienced sexual violence prior to age 18, also experienced physical violence prior to age 18. More than 4 in 10 females and 1 in 2 males who experienced childhood sexual violence also experienced emotional violence prior to age 18" (UNICEF Tanzania, 2011 p.2).
As already mentioned above, this form of abuse is highly sanctioned in Tanzanian society and receives less attention in comparison to other forms and yet it has negative lifelong impact on children. Skuse describes various key features of the abuse among different age groups. The key features of emotional abuse among infants include;
"physical failure to thrive, recurrent and persistent minor infections, frequent attendance at casualty departments or admission to hospital, unexplained bruising severe, nappy rash development, general delay behaviour attachment disorders: anxious, avoidant, lack of social responsiveness" (Skuse, 1989 p.1692).
In Tanzania infants are not looked after by their mothers alone, in most circumstances these babies are looked after by other members of the extended family, housemaids or older siblings. For an infant, communicating abuse is obviously a challenge, hence identifying key features of emotional abuse among infants could be of use. However, features outlined by Skuse above are hard to apply in the context of Tanzania where infections, bruises, nappy rash and the like are a common feature of most infants due to other factors linked to poverty and health conditions.
Similarly, children of pre-school age can hardly express their experience of abuse in daily life in Tanzanian society. Children of this age become vulnerable to abuse not only from the list of adults and older siblings but perhaps even from their own peers. Again to identify and follow up on such abuse incidents for a child in Tanzania is difficult. Skuke again has a list of key features that in other societies may easily be used to identify a child of this age who is experiencing abuse. They include:
"Physical short stature microcephaly, unkempt and dirty, development of language delayed, attention span limited, socio-emotional immaturity behaviour, overactive, aggressive and impulsive, indiscriminate friendliness, seeks physical contact from strangers" (Skuse, 1989 p.1693).
For schoolchildren, Skuse presents the following list of key features;
"Physical short stature, poor hygiene, unkempt appearance development, learning difficulties, lack of self-esteem, poor coping skills, socio-emotional immaturity behaviour disordered or few relationships, self-stimulating or self-injurious behaviour, or both, unusual patterns of defecation or urination, or both" (Skuse, 1989 p.1693).
As mentioned above, this list needs to be contextualized if is to be used to identify children who have experienced abuse in Tanzanian society as these features could be taken or associated with other factors. The challenge is therefore to develop appropriate methods that can assist parents, teachers and community members in general in identifying children who are experiencing emotional abuse and other forms of abuse and facilitate the breaking of the silence behind abuse of children in Tanzania.
Ⅴ. Conclusion: Tanzania Child Development Policy and Protection of Children
The Tanzanian government has given special attention to children. The government recognizes the importance of raising children in a safe environment and responding to their basic needs. This is evidenced by, among others, the formation of a cabinet portfolio that deals with children - The Ministry of Community Development, Gender and Children. Through this Ministry the government has come up with a policy for the protection of children.
The question that needs to be asked is whether this policy has the ability to provide effective guidelines and effective implementation strategies that can in turn offer effective protection of children. Tanzania Child Development Policy was put in place in 1996. The UNICEF Tanzania survey report on child abuse in Tanzania that is discussed in previous chapters does not reflect the fact that this policy has had a desired impact in protecting children.
There are a couple of things about the policy itself that can be discussed. Chapter 5, section 86 states:
"Children need to be protected at all stages of their growth, before and after birth. Therefore, children need to be protected against things such as abortion, murder, suicide, abandonment, exploitation, tasks incompatible with their age, deprivation, oppression and neglect. Children also need protection against all forms of abuse, bad practices and cruelty for example female genital mutilation, forced early marriage and also drug abuse. Because of the decline in morality and neglect of our traditions and customs, there has been large increase in cases of rape and defilement of children in our society" (URT, 1996 P.32).
Child protection of children is mentioned in the last chapter of this document. Earlier chapters mention child survival, child rights and child development. In the objectives section of this policy, child abuse is mentioned as the tenth and last objective. It may seem that this order simply follows a logical flow, but more than that it also reflects the level of concern and attention given to the issue of child protection.
By the order of issues that needs to be considered in child protection, the policy indicates that issues of "abortion, murder, suicide, abandonment, exploitation, tasks incompatible with their age, deprivation, oppression and neglect" are a real concern and the policy gives them a priority focus. Abuse of children is mentioned much later and again this may reflect the level of concern given in this document to child protection from abuse.
When child abuse is finally mentioned it indicates some disconnect between the real issues that face the children on a daily basis and the views of policymakers. The mention of "cruelty" is overly general and does not bring up the realities that are on the ground. Female Genital Mutilation and early marriages are subjects that are important and have succeeded in receiving much attention, which is good thing, but it is important to also give heightened attention to other forms of emotional, physical and sexual abuse.
The policy presents sexual abuse with an excuse and some form of justification. The statement starts with "Because of the decline in morality and neglect of our traditions and customs..." This sentence may be suggesting some denial in acknowledging and owning up to the problem of sexual child abuse. This could again be linked to the earlier discussion on the silence behind the topic of sex.
Also, earlier on this policy states in chapter 4 section 81 under Child Development theme "individuals, institutions and non-governmental organizations should ensure that all activities involving children do not violate good customs and traditions of our nation..." (URT, 1996 P.29). The emphasis put on keeping "traditions and customs" in this document may be interpreted as suggesting that child abuse problems in Tanzania are alien; they are a consequence of losing Tanzanian customs and traditions and adopting foreign traditions.
- Australian Institute of Family Studies. (2012, June). What is child abuse and neglect? - Child Family Community Australia. Retrieved February 20, 2013, from http://www.aifs.gov.au/cfca/pubs/factsheets/a142091/index.html
- Batty, David (2004, April 23). Timeline: the history of child protection. The Guardian [online] Retrieved February 16, 2013, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2004/apr/23/childrensservices.childprotection
- Bromfield Leah (2005). Cumulative Harm - The effects of chronic child maltreatment. Retrieved from http://www.communities.qld.gov.au/resources/childsafety/about-us/research/documents/cumulative-harm-the-effects-of-chronic-child-maltreatment.pdf
- Children's Rights Portal. (2013). Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child, 1924 | Children's Rights Portal. Portal. Retrieved February 16, 2013, from http://childrensrightsportal.org/childrens-rights-history/references-on-child-rights/geneva-declaration/
- Christoffel KK, Scheidt PC, Agran PF, McLoughlin E, Paulson JA. (1992). Standard definitions for childhood injury research: excerpts of a conference report. Pediatrics. 1992; 80 (6 Pt 1): 1027-1034
- Coral Reef (2009). Retrieved from http://www.gefcoral.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=0RttZVuf164%3D
- Dagne, Ted (2011) Africa: U.S. Foreign Assistance Issues. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33591.pdf
- Fogarty, John F. (2008). Some aspects of the early history of child protection in Australia. Family matters, No. 78: 52-59
- Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children (2012) Corporal punishment of children in the United Republic of Tanzania. Retrieved from http://www.endcorporalpunishment.org/pages/pdfs/states-reports/UR%20Tanzania.pdf
- Kashi, Joseph S. (1977). The case of the unwanted blessing: wrongful life. Univ Miami Law Rev 1977; 31(5):1409-32
- Lalor, Kevin (2004) Dublin Institute of Technology Retrieved from http://arrow.dit.ie/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article
- Malya, Romana. (2013, February 16). Yaytima abakwa kwenye danguro Dar miaka 10. Retrieved from http://www.ippmedia.com/frontend/index.php?l=51295
- Michuzi, Issa. (2012, November 12). Mtoto wa miaka 3 amwagiwa maji moto na kulazimishwa kula kinyesi chake. issamichuzi. Retrieved from http://issamichuzi.blogspot.jp/search?q=mtoto
- Myers, John (2010) A Short History of Child Protection in America. Family Law Quarterly; Fall2008, Vol. 42 Issue 3, p449
- Obama,Barack H."State of the Union Address."2013 State of the Union. Capitol Building. Washington, D.C. 13 Feb. 2013. Address.
- Randall, Megan. (2011, April 21). Teaching in Tanzania: My Most Personal Dilemmas and Triumphs Throughout My Teaching Experience in Tanzania. Teaching in Tanzania. Retrieved from http://teachingtanzania.blogspot.jp/2011/04/my-most-personal-dilemmas-and-triumphs.html
- Reeuwijk, M.A.J van (2009) III: Childhood sexuality in Tanzania. Retrieved from http://dare.uva.nl/document/135792
- Save the Children. (2013). FAQ | Resource Centre. Retrieved February 16, 2013, from http://resourcecentre.savethechildren.se/faq
- Setel Philip, Mwageni Eleuther, Mndeme Namsifu, Hemed Yusuf. (1997). The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality [Tanzania]. Retrieved February 20, 2013, from http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/IES/tanzania.html
- Skuse David H. (1989). JSTOR: BMJ: British Medical Journal, Vol. 298, No. 6689 (Jun. 24, 1989), pp. 1692-1694.
- Smith, Alex Duval (2011, August 9). Tanzania report reveals extent of violence against children. The Guardian [online] Retrieved February 14, 2013, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/poverty-matters/2011/aug/09/tanzania-violence-against-children
- URT (1996) childdevelopmentpolicy.pdf. Retrieved from http://www.tanzania.go.tz/pdf/childdevelopmentpolicy.pdf
- United Nations Convention on the Rights of a Child (1990) crc.pdf. Retrieved from http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/pdf/crc.pdf
- UNICEF (2013) Child Protection Manual Retrieved February 14, 2013, from http://www.unicef.org/violencestudy/pdf/CP%20Manual%20-%20Stage%201.pdf
- UNICEF. (2013A). UNICEF - Millennium Development Goals. UNICEF Millenium Development Goals. Retrieved February 16, 2013, from http://www.unicef.org/mdg/index_unicefsrole.htm
- UNICEF. (2013B). UNICEF - About UNICEF: Who we are - Our history. Retrieved February 16, 2013, from http://www.unicef.org/about/who/index_history.html
- UNICEF Tanzania (2011). Violence Against Children in Tanzania. Retrieved from http://www.unicef.org/media/files/VIOLENCE_AGAINST_CHILDREN_IN_TANZANIA_REPORT.pdf
- United Nations Millennium Development Goals. (n.d.). Retrieved February 16, 2013, from http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/childhealth.shtml
- WAVUTI. (2011, March 31). Mtoto aadhibiwa kichwa chini miguu juu! - wavuti.com. WAVUTI.COM. Retrieved from http://www.wavuti.com/4/post/2011/03/mtoto-aadhibiwa-kichwa-chini-miguu-juu.html#axzz2KkHmiuD4
- WAVUTI. (2012A, January 25). Hanithi mmoja ambaka mtoto kwenye maliwato ya msikiti Dodoma - wavuti.com. WAVUTI.COM. Retrieved from http://www.wavuti.com/4/post/2012/01/hanithi-mmoja-ambaka-mtoto-kwenye-maliwato-ya-msikiti-dodoma.html#ixzz2KkNdrOTd
- WAVUTI. (2012B, May 23). Tabia ya vijana wa kiume kubaka ndugu zao wa kike, inakomeshwaje? Ina athari - wavuti.com. WAVUTI.COM. Retrieved from http://www.wavuti.com/4/post/2012/05/tabia-ya-vijana-wa-kiume-kubaka-ndugu-zao-wa-kike-inakomeshwaje-ina-athari.html#axzz2KkHmiuD4
- WAVUTI. (2012C, December 8). Mwana (40) wa Diwani ambaka mtoto (10) - wavuti.com. WAVUTI.COM. Retrieved from http://www.wavuti.com/4/post/2012/12/mwana-40-wa-diwani-ambaka-mtoto-10.html#axzz2KkHmiuD4