The Fort Pillow Massacre, 1864
A Spotlight on a Primary Source by Mack J. Leaming
"Among the stories of the stormy days of the Republic, few will longer be remembered than the heroic defense and almost utter annihilation of the garrison of Fort Pillow."
—Mack J. Leaming, April 1893
On April 12, 1864, fifteen hundred Confederate soldiers led by General Nathan Bedford Forrest attacked the 567 Union troops stationed at Fort Pillow, Tennessee. Fighting raged until a truce was called at 3 p.m., but despite being greatly outnumbered, the Union troops refused to surrender. The Confederates renewed their attack at 4 p.m. and quickly overwhelmed the garrison. Nearly 300 Union soldiers were killed. The Confederates suffered only fourteen deaths.
The attack on Fort Pillow fell on the third anniversary of the firing on Fort Sumter in South Carolina, the start of the Civil War. Many believe that Forrest and his men wanted to punish, not just defeat, both the African American soldiers and the white men from Tennessee fighting on the side of the Union who were based at Fort Pillow. According to eyewitnesses, Confederates murdered Union
prisoners, including some who were wounded, after the fort had been taken. Despite the carnage, Fort Pillow was of little tactical significance and General Forrest abandoned the fort the next day.
The events were soon called a "massacre," and the US Congress investigated the reports. At the congressional inquiry, witnesses stated that most of the wounds suffered by Union soldiers targeted the torso and head, while battle wounds usually occurred to the limbs. Of the 300 Union dead, close to 200 were African American. While 70 percent of white soldiers survived, only 35 percent of African American soldiers survived. But the massacre did not deter black troops from serving in the Union Army. "Remember Fort Pillow" became a rallying cry for African American soldiers.
First Lieutenant Mack Leaming served in the 13th Tennessee Regiment in the Union Army. As the highest-ranking officer in his regiment to survive, Leaming wrote his regiment’s official report of the battle. Nearly thirty years later, he wrote a vivid seventeen-page account of the battle and its aftermath. It stands as testimony to the brutality and ruthlessness of the battle.
From where I fell wounded, I could plainly see this firing and note the bullets striking the water around the black heads of the soldiers, until suddenly the muddy current became red and I saw another life sacrificed in the cause of the Union. Here I noticed one soldier in the river, but in some way clinging to the bank. Two confederate soldiers pulled him out. He seemed to be wounded and crawled on his hands and knees. Finely one of the confederate soldiers placed his revolver to the head of the colored soldier and killed him.
A lengthy excerpt is available.
Questions for Discussion
Read the document introduction and transcript and apply your knowledge of American history in order to answer these questions.
- Define the term “massacre.”
- To what extent do the events in the memoir by Mack J. Leaming fit the description of a massacre? Provide two or three examples to support your response.
- How were African American soldiers serving in the Union Army treated differently from the white Union soldiers during this battle?
- Although the capture of Fort Pillow was of little tactical significance, why is it remembered today?
A printer-friendly version is available here.
This article is about the 1864 land battle and massacre. For the 1862 naval battle, see Fort Pillow naval battle.
|Battle of Fort Pillow|
|Part of the American Civil War|
Caption in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper (New York), May 7, 1864- "The war in Tennessee: Confederate massacre of black Union troops after the surrender at Fort Pillow, April 12, 1864"
|United States (Union)||Confederate States|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Lionel F. Booth †|
William F. Bradford †
|Nathan Bedford Forrest|
James R. Chalmers
Fort Pillow garrison
|1st Division, Forrest's Cavalry Corps|
|Casualties and losses|
|182 killed, drowned and missing||100 total|
86 wounded 
The Battle of Fort Pillow, which ended with the Fort Pillow massacre, was fought on April 12, 1864, at Fort Pillow on the Mississippi River in Henning, Tennessee, during the American Civil War. The battle ended with a massacre of mostly African-AmericanUnion troops attempting to surrender, by soldiers under the command of ConfederateMajor GeneralNathan Bedford Forrest. Military historian David J. Eicher concluded, "Fort Pillow marked one of the bleakest, saddest events of American military history."
Fort Pillow became the most controversial battle of the war. That a massacre occurred is not the issue; one did. The question is whether General Nathan Bedford Forrest, the commander, ordered the massacre (as the Union press immediately claimed), knew of but did nothing to halt or even encouraged the massacre, or, as Forrest later alleged, had nothing to do with the spontaneous action of soldiers enraged at seeing former slaves fighting them with guns.
The Fort Pillow massacre became a major political issue in the North, and increased support for the war.
The deployment of black men as U.S. soldiers by the Union, combined with Abraham Lincoln's issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation, profoundly angered the Confederacy, with the Confederates calling it "uncivilized". In response the Confederacy in May 1863 passed a law demanding that black U.S. soldiers captured while fighting against the Confederacy would be tried as slave insurrectionists in civil courts, a capital offense with automatic sentence of death. The law stated that the Confederates should commit "full and ample retaliation" against such persons.[dead link]
Fort Pillow, on the Mississippi River 40 mi (64 km) north of Memphis, was built by Confederate Brigadier GeneralGideon Johnson Pillow in early 1862 and was used by both sides during the war. With the fall of New Madrid and Island No. 10 to Union forces, Confederate troops evacuated Fort Pillow on June 4, in order to avoid being cut off from the rest of the Confederate army. Union forces occupied Fort Pillow on June 6 and used it to protect the river approach to Memphis.
The fort stood on a high bluff and was protected by three lines of entrenchments arranged in a semicircle, with a protective parapet 4 ft (1.2 m) thick and 6 to 8 ft (1.8 to 2.4 m) high surrounded by a ditch. (During the battle, this design proved to be a disadvantage to the defenders because they could not fire upon approaching troops without mounting the top of the parapet, which subjected them to enemy fire. Because of the width of the parapet, operators of the six artillery pieces of the fort found it difficult to depress their barrels enough to fire on the attackers once they got close.) A Union gunboat, the USS New Era, commanded by Captain James Marshall, was also available for the defense.
On March 16, 1864, Major GeneralNathan Bedford Forrest launched a month-long cavalry raid with 7,000 troopers into western Tennessee and Kentucky. Their objectives were to capture Union prisoners and supplies and to demolish posts and fortifications from Paducah, Kentucky, south to Memphis. Forrest's Cavalry Corps, which he called "the Cavalry Department of West Tennessee and North Mississippi," consisted of the divisions led by Brig. Gens. James R. Chalmers (brigades of Brig. Gen. Robert V. Richardson and Colonel Robert M. McCulloch) and Abraham Buford (brigades of Cols. Tyree H. Bell and A. P. Thompson).
The first of the two significant engagements in the expedition was the Battle of Paducah on March 25, where Forrest's men did considerable damage to the town and its military supplies. Forrest had tried to bluff U.S. Col. Stephen G. Hicks into surrender, warning "... if I have to storm your works, you may expect no quarter". Hicks rejected the demand, as he knew that the fort could not be easily taken.
Numerous skirmishes occurred throughout the region in late March and early April. Needing supplies, Forrest planned to move on Fort Pillow with about 1,500  to 2,500 men. (He had detached part of his command under Buford to strike Paducah again.) He wrote on April 4, "There is a Federal force of 500 or 600 at Fort Pillow, which I shall attend to in a day or two, as they have horses and supplies which we need."
The Union garrison at Fort Pillow consisted of about 600 men, divided almost evenly between black and white troops. The black soldiers belonged to the 6th U.S. Regiment Colored Heavy Artillery and a section of the 2nd Colored Light Artillery (previously known as the Memphis Battery Light Artillery (African Descent)), under the overall command of MajorLionel F. Booth, who had been in the fort for only two weeks. Booth had been ordered to move his regiment from Memphis to Fort Pillow on March 28 to augment the cavalry, who had occupied the fort several weeks earlier. Many of the regiment were former slaves who understood the personal cost of a loss to the Confederates—at best an immediate return to slavery rather than being treated as a prisoner of war. They had heard that some Confederates threatened to kill any Union black troops they encountered. The white soldiers were predominantly new recruits from Bradford's Battalion, a Union unit from west Tennessee, commanded by Maj. William F. Bradford.
Forrest arrived at Fort Pillow at 10:00 on April 12. By this time, Chalmers had already surrounded the fort. A stray bullet struck Forrest's horse, felling the general and bruising him. This would be the first of three horses he lost that day. He deployed sharpshooters around the higher ground that overlooked the fort, bringing many of the occupants into their direct line of fire. Major Booth was killed by a sharpshooter's bullet to the chest and Bradford assumed command. By 11:00, the Confederates had captured two rows of barracks about 150 yd (140 m) from the southern end of the fort. The Union soldiers had failed to destroy these buildings before the Confederates occupied them and subjected the garrison to a murderous fire.
Rifle and artillery fire continued until 3:30, when Forrest sent a note demanding surrender: "The conduct of the officers and men garrisoning Fort Pillow has been such as to entitle them to being treated as prisoners of war. I demand the unconditional surrender of the entire garrison, promising that you shall be treated as prisoners of war. My men have just received a fresh supply of ammunition, and from their present position can easily assault and capture the fort. Should my demand be refused, I cannot be responsible for the fate of your command." Bradford replied, concealing his identity as he did not wish the Confederates to realize that Booth had been killed, requesting an hour for consideration. Forrest, who believed that reinforcing troops would soon arrive by river, replied that he would only allow 20 minutes, and that "If at the expiration of that time the fort is not surrendered, I shall assault it." Bradford refused this opportunity with a final reply: "I will not surrender." Forrest then ordered his bugler to sound the charge.
The Confederate assault was furious. While the sharpshooters maintained their fire into the fort, a first wave entered the ditch and stood while the second wave used their backs as stepping stones. These men then reached down and helped the first wave scramble up a ledge on the embankment. All of this proceeded flawlessly and with very little firing, except from the sharpshooters and around the flanks. Their fire against the New Era caused the sailors to button up their gun ports and hold their fire. As the sharpshooters were signaled to hold their fire, the men on the ledge went up and over the embankment, firing now for the first time into the massed defenders, who fought briefly, but then broke and ran to the landing at the foot of the bluff, where they had been told that the Union gunboat would cover their withdrawal by firing grapeshot and canister rounds. The gunboat did not fire a single shot because its gun ports were sealed. The fleeing soldiers were subjected to fire both from the rear and from the flank, from the soldiers who had been firing at the gunboat. Many were shot down. Others reached the river only to drown, or be picked off in the water by marksmen on the bluff.
Historians and official reports emphasize a deliberate massacre took place. Confederate sources say they kept firing in self-defense. Survivors claimed that even though the Union troops surrendered, Forrest's men massacred them in cold blood. Surviving members of the garrison said that most of their men surrendered and threw down their arms, only to be shot or bayoneted by the attackers, who repeatedly shouted, "No quarter! No quarter!" Women and children were also killed:
The rebels commenced an indiscriminate slaughter, sparing neither age nor sex, white nor black soldier nor civilian. The officers and men seemed to vie with each other in the devilish work. Men, women and their children, wherever found, were deliberately shot down, beaten and hacked with sabres. Some of the children, not more than ten years old, were forced to stand up and face their murderers while being shot. The sick and wounded were butchered without mercy, the rebels even entering the hospital buildings and dragging them out to be shot, or killing them as they lay there unable to offer the least resistance.
There were also atrocities:
One man was deliberately fastened down to the floor of a tent, face upward, by means of nails driven through his clothing and into the boards under him, so that he could not possibly escape, and then the tent was set on fire. Another was nailed to the side of a building outside of the fort, and then the building was set on fire and burned.
The next morning, "the demons carefully sought among the dead lying about in all directions for any other wounded yet alive, and those they found were deliberately shot." Forrest himself called it "slaughter".
The Joint Committee On the Conduct of the War immediately investigated the incident. In their report, from which the previous quotes were taken, they concluded that the Confederates shot most of the garrison after it had surrendered. A 2002 study by Albert Castel concluded that the Union forces were indiscriminately massacred after Fort Pillow "had ceased resisting or was incapable of resistance." Historian Andrew Ward in 2005 reached the conclusion that an atrocity in the modern sense occurred at Fort Pillow, including the murders of fleeing black civilians, but that the event was not premeditated nor officially sanctioned by Confederate commanders.
Recent histories generally concur that a massacre occurred. Historian Richard Fuchs, the author of An Unerring Fire, concludes, "The affair at Fort Pillow was simply an orgy of death, a mass lynching to satisfy the basest of conduct—intentional murder—for the vilest of reasons—racism and personal enmity." Ward states, "Whether the massacre was premeditated or spontaneous does not address the more fundamental question of whether a massacre took place... it certainly did, in every dictionary sense of the word." John Cimprich states, "The new paradigm in social attitudes and the fuller use of available evidence has favored a massacre interpretation.... Debate over the memory of this incident formed a part of sectional and racial conflicts for many years after the war, but the reinterpretation of the event during the last thirty years offers some hope that society can move beyond past intolerance."
Lieutenant Daniel Van Horn of the 6th U.S. Heavy Artillery (Colored) stated in his official report, "There never was a surrender of the fort, both officers and men declaring they never would surrender or ask for quarter." Another officer of the unit, however, and the only surviving officers of Bradford's Battalion attested to the characterization that unarmed soldiers were killed in the act of surrendering. A Confederate sergeant, in a letter written home shortly after the battle, said that "the poor, deluded negroes would run up to our men, fall upon their knees, and with uplifted hand scream for mercy, but were ordered to their feet and then shot down." This account is consistent with the relatively high comparative casualties sustained by race of the defenders. (See next section.)
Forrest's men insisted that the Union soldiers, although fleeing, kept their weapons and frequently turned to shoot, forcing the Confederates to keep firing in self-defense. Their claim is consistent with the discovery of numerous Union rifles on the bluffs near the river. The Union flag was still flying over the fort, which indicated that the force had not formally surrendered. A contemporary newspaper account from Jackson, Tennessee, states that "General Forrest begged them to surrender," but "not the first sign of surrender was ever given." Similar accounts were reported in both Southern and Northern newspapers at the time.
Historian Allan Nevins wrote that although the interpretation of the facts had "provoked some disputation":
Northerners, however, saw only one side. They read headlines announcing "Attack on Fort Pillow—Indiscriminate Slaughter of the Prisoners—Shocking Scenes of Savagery; dispatches from Sherman's army declaring "there is a general gritting of teeth here"; reports from the Missouri Democrat detailing the "fiendishness" of rebel behavior; and editorials like that in the Chicago Tribune condemning the "murder" and "butchery."
The New York Times reported on April 24:
The blacks and their officers were shot down, bayoneted and put to the sword in cold blood.... Out of four hundred negro soldiers only about twenty survive! At least three hundred of them were destroyed after the surrender! This is the statement of the rebel General Chalmers himself to our informant.
Later, in his Memoirs, Ulysses S. Grant, who was not present at the battle, wrote of the battle:
Forrest, however, fell back rapidly, and attacked the troops at Fort Pillow, a station for the protection of the navigation of the Mississippi River. The garrison consisted of a regiment of colored troops, infantry, and a detachment of Tennessee cavalry. These troops fought bravely, but were overpowered. I will leave Forrest in his dispatches to tell what he did with them.
"The river was dyed," he [Forrest] says, "with the blood of the slaughtered for two hundred yards. The approximate loss was upward of five hundred killed, but few of the officers escaping. My loss was about twenty killed. It is hoped that these facts will demonstrate to the Northern people that negro soldiers cannot cope with Southerners." Subsequently, Forrest made a report in which he left out the part which shocks humanity to read.
John Fisher, in his book They Rode with Forrest and Wheeler, writes: "Grant refers here to two reports from Forrest to his superior officer, Leonidas Polk: (1) a hasty, exuberant report dated April 15, 1864, dashed off three days after the attack on Fort Pillow, describing the success of Forrest's recent operations in West Tennessee, and (2) a well-defined, detailed, and comprehensive report of the action at Fort Pillow only dated April 26."
At the time of the massacre General Grant was no longer in Tennessee but had transferred to the east to command all Union troops. Major General William Tecumseh Sherman, Commander of the Military Division of the Mississippi, which included Tennessee, wrote:
The massacre at Fort Pillow occurred April 12, 1864, and has been the subject of congressional inquiry. No doubt Forrest's men acted like a set of barbarians, shooting down the helpless negro garrison after the fort was in their possession; but I am told that Forrest personally disclaims any active participation in the assault, and that he stopped the firing as soon as he could. I also take it for granted that Forrest did not lead the assault in person, and consequently that he was to the rear, out of sight if not of hearing at the time, and I was told by hundreds of our men, who were at various times prisoners in Forrest's possession, that he was usually very kind to them. He had a desperate set of fellows under him, and at that very time there is no doubt the feeling of the Southern people was fearfully savage on this very point of our making soldiers out of their late slaves, and Forrest may have shared the feeling.
Casualty figures vary according to different sources. In 1908, Dyer gave the following statistics of Union casualties: 350 killed and mortally wounded, 60 wounded, 164 captured and missing, 574 aggregate.
Confederate casualties were comparatively low (14 killed and 86 wounded) and Union casualties were high. Of the 585 to 605 Union men present, 277 to 297 were reported as dead. Jordan in the mid-20th century suggested the Union deaths were exaggerated. Historians agree that defenders' casualties varied considerably according to race. Only 58 (around 20%) black soldiers were marched away as prisoners, whereas 168 (about 60%) of the white soldiers were taken prisoner. Not all of the prisoners who were shot were black; Major Bradford was apparently among those shot after he surrendered. Confederate anger at the thought of black men fighting them and their initial reluctance to surrender (many of the black troops believed they would be killed if they surrendered in Union uniform) resulted in a tragedy.
The Confederates evacuated Fort Pillow that evening so they gained little in the battle except a temporary disruption of Union operations. Union forces used the "Fort Pillow massacre" as a rallying cry in the following months. For many, it strengthened their resolve to see the war to its conclusion.
On April 17, 1864, in the aftermath of Fort Pillow, General Grant ordered General Benjamin F. Butler, who was negotiating prisoner exchanges with the Confederacy, to demand that black prisoners had to be treated identically to whites in the exchange and treatment of prisoners. He directed that a failure to do so would "be regarded as a refusal on their part to agree to the further exchange of prisoners, and [would] be so treated by us."
This demand was refused; Confederate Secretary of War Seddon in June 1864 wrote:
I doubt, however, whether the exchange of negroes at all for our soldiers would be tolerated. As to the white officers serving with negro troops, we ought never to be inconvenienced with such prisoners.
The Union already had established a policy to discourage killing and enslaving prisoners of war. On July 30, 1863, before the massacre, President Abraham Lincoln wrote his Order of Retaliation:
It is therefore ordered that for every soldier of the United States killed in violation of the laws of war, a rebel soldier shall be executed; and for every one enslaved by the enemy or sold into slavery[,] a rebel soldier shall be placed at hard labor on the public works, and continued at such labor until the other shall be released and receive the treatment due to a prisoner of war.
This policy did not lead to any action, but the threat of action lead the Confederate army tacitly to treat Union negro soldiers as legitimate soldiers, rather than insurrecting slaves, for the remainder of the war. Nevertheless, the same behavior was exhibited by Southern troops after the Battle of the Crater (July, 1864).
On May 3, 1864, Lincoln asked his cabinet for opinions as to how the Union should respond to the massacre. Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase recommended for Lincoln to enforce his Order of Retaliation of July 30, 1863. Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles wanted to wait for the congressional committee to obtain more information. Welles expressed concerns in his diary: "There must be something in these terrible reports, but I distrust Congressional committees. They exaggerate." Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton and Attorney General Edward Bates wanted to retaliate. Secretary of the Interior John P. Usher wrote that it was "inexpedient to take any extreme action" and wanted the officers of Forrest's command to be held responsible. Postmaster General Montgomery Blair wanted the "actual offenders" given the "most summary punishment when captured." Blair cited page 445 of the book International Law; or, Rules Regulating the Intercourse of States in Peace and War, written by Henry W. Halleck (the Union Chief of Staff), as justification for retaliation. Secretary of State William H. Seward wanted the commanding general of the Union army to confront the commanding general of the Confederate army about the allegations.
Welles wrote of the cabinet meeting on May 6:
Stanton fell in with my suggestion, so far as to propose that, should Forrest, or Chalmers, or any officer conspicuous in this butchery be captured, he should be turned over for trial for the murders at Fort Pillow. I sat beside Chase and mentioned to him some of the advantages of this course, and he said it made a favorable impression. I urged him to say so, for it appeared to me that the President and Seward did not appreciate it.
Lincoln began to write instructions to Stanton but took no subsequent action because he was "distracted" by other issues.
In the United States Senate, Henry Wilson cited the massacre when he advocated for equal pay for African-American soldiers. A Vermont newspaper portrayed Wilson's position:
Henry Wilson of Massachusetts, in a speech in the U. S. Senate on Friday, said he thought our treatment of the negro soldiers almost as bad as that of the rebels at Fort Pillow. This is hardly an exaggeration.
Nathan Bedford Forrest has been called "one of the most controversial—and popular—icons of the war." He served as the first Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan but later distanced himself from the organization.
Fort Pillow, preserved as the Fort Pillow State Park, was designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1974.
The remains of the killed were moved to Memphis National Cemetery in 1867. 109 of the graves have been identified. As the signage at the Fort Pillow site makes little reference to the Negroes killed, a wreath-laying ceremony, with color guard and 21-gun salute, was held on April 12, 2017 at the Cemetery to commemorate them. The term "war criminal" was used to refer to Forrest.
In popular culture
- At the start of Chapter 29 of his Life On The Mississippi (1883), Mark Twain mentions passing by "... what was once the formidable Fort Pillow, memorable because of the massacre perpetrated there during the war ... we must bunch Anglo-Saxon history together to find the fellow to the Fort Pillow tragedy."
- African-American novelist Frank Yerby provided a brief narration of the massacre in his 1946 novel, The Foxes of Harrow (Chapter XXXVI).
- Perry Lentz's novel The Falling Hills (1967, paperback 1994) centers on the Fort Pillow Massacre as its main plot element, with the book's two protagonists as members of the opposing sides in the battle.
- The film, Last Stand at Saber River (1997), based on the Elmore Leonard novel of the same name, featured a character (played by Tom Selleck) who was a Confederate soldier at the Fort Pillow massacre. The character returns to his home in the U.S. Southwest, where he describes the events as murder.
- In 1999, Stan Armstrong produced the documentary, The Forgotten Battle of Fort Pillow. The documentary explores the details of the battle and Confederate General Bedford G. Forrest, who planned and led the attack.
- The 2004 mockumentary film, C.S.A.: The Confederate States of America, an analogous alternate history massacre took place somewhere in the North, following the Confederacy winning the Civil War.
- Harry Turtledove published Fort Pillow (2006), a historical novel about the battle and the massacre. His earlier novel, the alternate historyThe Guns of the South (1992), also makes a brief reference to the Fort Pillow massacre.
- In Part 4 of the 2016 television miniseriesRoots, the character Chicken George fights at the Battle of Fort Pillow, but manages to escape.
- ^John L. Jordan, "Was there a Massacre at Fort Pillow?" Tennessee Historical Quarterly, Vol. 6, No. 2 (June, 1947), 99-133 (113).
- ^ abEicher, p. 657.
- ^Grant, Ulysses (August 23, 1863). "Letter to Abraham Lincoln". Cairo, Illinois. Archived from the original on May 3, 2014. Retrieved May 3, 2014.
- ^Hall, Andy (April 15, 2014). "Understanding Fort Pillow: 'Full and Ample Retaliation'". Dead Confederates: A Civil War Blog. WordPress. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
- ^Williams, George W., History of the Negro Race in America from 1619 to 1880: Negros as Slaves, as Soldiers, and as Citizens, vol. II, New York: G.P. Putnam Son's, 1883, pp. 351–352.
- ^Congress of the Confederate States of America (May 1, 1863). "No. 5". Joint Resolution on the Subject of Retaliation. Virginia. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016. Retrieved March 6, 2016.
- ^U.S. Congress JCCW, p. 3.
- ^ abUnited States War Dept; Henry Martyn Lazelle; Leslie J. Perry (1891). The War of the Rebellion: v.1-53 [serial no. 1-111] Formal reports, both ... Washington: Government Printing Office. p. 547.
- ^Foote, p. 108.
- ^NPS website
- ^Eicher, p. 655.
- ^Bradford's unit was organized as the 13th West Tennessee Cavalry. Due to a mix-up in the Union records, it was later designated as Company A, 14th Tennessee Cavalry Regiment, and later as Company E, 6th Tennessee Cavalry.
- ^Foote, p. 109.
- ^http://thisweekinthecivilwar.com/?p=1816 |On this date in Civil War history – Fort Pillow Massacre – April 12, 1864
- ^Moody, John Sheldon, et al., The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies, Series 1, Part 1. Vol. 32. (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1891), p. 596.
- ^ abBailey, p. 25.
- ^ abc"THE FORT PILLOW MASSACRE.; Report of the Committee on the Conduct of the War. All Previous Reports Fully Confirmed. The Horrors and Cruelties of the Scene Intensified. REPORT OF THE SUB-COMMITTEE". New York Times. May 6, 1864. Retrieved March 5, 2018.
- ^ abU.S. Grant, Personal Memoirs (Library of America, 1990), p. 483.
- ^Forrest, Nathan Bedford (June 23, 1864). Morton, John Watson, ed. "Letter to Maj. Gen. C. C. Washburn". The Artillery of Nathan Bedford Forrest's Cavalry: "The Wizard of the Saddle," Nashville, 1909. p. 189. Retrieved March 5, 2018.
- ^Castel, pp. 37–50.
- ^Ward, Andrew (2005). River Run Red: The Fort Pillow Massacre in the American Civil War. Penguin Books. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-4406-4929-5.
- ^Richard Fuchs, An Unerring Fire: The Massacre At Fort Pillow (Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole, 2002), p. 14.
- ^Ward (2005), p. 227.
- ^John Cimprich, Fort Pillow: A Civil War Massacre and Public Memory(Louisiana State University Press, 2005), pp. 123–124.
- ^"Lieut. Daniel Van Horn's Official Report For The Battle Of Fort Pillow". The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Washington, D.C. Xxxii/1 S# 57. 1880. Archived from the original on December 15, 2010. Retrieved January 4, 2011.
- ^Foote, pp. 111–112.
- ^ abJordan
- ^Cimprich and Mainfort, pp. 293–306.
- ^Nevins, p. 60.
- ^Fuchs, p. 84.
- ^Chernow, 2017, p.373
- ^Fisher, pp. 145–146.
- ^William T. Sherman, Memoirs of General W.T. Sherman (Library of America, 1990), p. 463.
- ^William T. Sherman, Memoirs of General W.T. Sherman (Library of America, 1990), p. 470.
- ^Dyer, Frederick H., A Compendium of the War of Rebellion (Des Moines: The Dyer Publishing Company 1908), p. 590.
- ^Eicher, p. 657; U.S. Congress JCCW, p. 103.
- ^ abLevin, Kevin M. (October 2010). "'Until every negro has been slaughtered': did Southerners see the Battle of the Crater as a slave rebellion?". Civil War Times. 49 (5). Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- ^Fuchs, pp. 143–144.
- ^Fuchs, p. 144.
- ^Lincoln, Abraham. Abraham Lincoln Complete Works. Edited by John G. Nicolay and John Hay. Vol. II. (New York, NY: The Century Company, 1920), p. 378.
- ^Van Arragon, William (2012). "Fort Pillow, a Civil War Massacre, and Public Memory (review of the book of this title by John Cimprich)". Canadian Journal of History. 47 (2). Retrieved March 10, 2018.
- ^Lincoln, Abraham. "Abraham Lincoln to Cabinet, Tuesday, May 03, 1864 (Fort Pillow massacre)," Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress. May 3, 1864. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/alhtml/malhome.html (accessed December 1, 2012).
- ^Chase, Salmon P. "Salmon P. Chase to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, May 06, 1864 (Opinion on Fort Pillow massacre)," The Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress. May 6, 1864. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/alhtml/malhome.html (accessed December 2, 2012).
- ^Welles, Gideon. Diary of Gideon Welles. Vol II (Boston and New York: Houghton and Mifflin Company, 1911), p. 23.
- ^Stanton, Edwin M. "Edwin M. Stanton to Abraham Lincoln, Thursday May 05, 1864 (Opinion on Fort Pillow massacre)," The Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress. May 5, 1864. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/alhtml/malhome.html (accessed December 2, 2012).
- ^Bates, Edward. "Edward Bates to Abraham Lincoln, Wednesday, May 04, 1864 (Opinion on Fort Pillow massacre)," The Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress. May 4, 1863. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/alhtml/malhome.html (accessed December 1, 2012).
- ^Usher, John P. "John P. Usher to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, May 06, 1864 (Opinion on Fort Pillow massacre)," The Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress. May 6, 1864. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/alhtml/malhome.html (accessed December 2, 2012).
- ^Blair, Montgomery. "Montgomery Blair to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, May 06, 1864 (Opinion on Fort Pillow massacre)." The Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress. May 6, 1864. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/alhtml/malhome.html (accessed December 2, 2012).
- ^Seward, William H. "William H. Seward to Abraham Lincoln, Wednesday, May 04, 1864 (Opinion on Fort Pillow)." The Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress. May 4, 1864. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/alhtml/malhome.html (accessed December 2, 2012).
- ^Welles, Gideon. Diary of Gideon Welles. (Boston and New York: Houghton and Mifflin Company, 1911), p. 25.
- ^see Note 1, Lincoln, Abraham. "Abraham Lincoln to William H. Seward, Tuesday, May 03, 1864 (Fort Pillow massacre)." Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress. May 3, 1864. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/alhtml/malhome.html (accessed December 1, 2012). For Lincoln's unfinished instructions to Stanton, see Collected Works, VII, pp. 345-46.
- ^United States. Congress. The Congressional Globe: Containing the Debate and Proceedings of the First Session of the Thirty-eight Congress. Edited by John C. Rives. (Washington, DC: Congressional Globe Printing Office, 1864.), pp. 1805-6.
- ^The Burlington Free Press. "Our Colored Soldiers." April 29, 1864: 2.
- ^"KKK leader on specialty license plates? Plan in Mississippi raises hackles". Christian Science Monitor. February 11, 2011.
- ^Foner (1988), p. 342. Hurst (1993), pp. 285, 287–288. M. Lewis and J. Serbu, "Commemorating the KKK", Sociological Quarterly, January 1999.
- ^"List of National Historic Landmarks by State"(PDF). U.S. Department of the Interior. June 2010. p. 94.
- ^WeAllBe Group, Inc. (2017). "Fort Pillow Massacre of 1864: We Will Never Forget! (press release)"(PDF). Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- ^Weathersbee, Tonyaa (April 12, 2017). "Anonymous no more: Honoring African-American Fort Pillow victims". Memphis Commercial Appeal. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
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- Wills, Brian Steel. The River Was Dyed with Blood: Nathan Bedford Forrest and Fort Pillow (2014) excerpt